2013年6月英语四级考前押题试卷及答案 1946-08-26

part i writing(30 minutes)
directions: for this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write acomposition on the topic choosing an occupation. you should writeat least 120 words following the outline given below inchinese:
1. 选择职业是一个人要面对的众多难题之一。
2. 需要花时间去选择职业。
3. 选择职业时可以向多人寻求建议和帮助。
choosing an occupation
-----------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------
part ii reading comprehension (skimming and scanning)(15minutes)
directions: in this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over thepassage quickly and answer the questions on answer sheet 1.forquestions 1-7,choose the best answer from the four choicesmarked[a],[b],[c]and [d]. for questions 8-10,complete the sentenceswith the information given in the passage.
will we run out of water?
picture a "ghost ship" sinking into the sand, left to rot on dryland by a receding sea. then imagine dust storms sweeping up toxicpesticides and chemical fertilizers from the dry seabed and spewingthem across towns and villages.
seem like a scene from a movie about the end of the world? forpeople living near the aral sea in central asia, it"s all too real.thirty years ago, government planners diverted the rivers that flowinto the sea in order to irrigate (provide water for)farmland. as aresult, the sea has shrunk to half its original size, strandingships on dry land. the seawater has tripled in salt content andbecome polluted, killing all 24 native species of fish.
similar large-scale efforts to redirect water in other parts of theworld have also ended in ecological crisis, according to numerousenvironmental groups. but many countries continue to build massivedams and irrigation systems, even though such projects can createmore problems than they fix. why? people in many parts of the worldare desperate for water, and more people will need more water inthe next century.
"growing populations will worsen problems with water," says peterh. gleick, an environmental scientist at the pacific institute forstudies in development, environment, and security, a researchorganization in california. he fears that by the year 2025, as manyas one-third of the world"s projected 8.3 billion people willsuffer from water shortages.
where water goes
only 2.5 percent of all water on earth is freshwater, watersuitable for drinking and growing food, says sandra postel,director of the global water policy project in amherst, mass.twothirds of this freshwater is locked in glaciers and ice caps.in fact, only a tiny percentage of freshwater is part of the watercycle, in which water evaporates and rises into the atmosphere,then condenses and falls back to earth as precipitation(rain orsnow).
some precipitation runs off land to lakes and oceans, and somebecomes groundwater, water that seeps into the earth. much of thisrenewable freshwater ends up in remote places like the amazon riverbasin in brazil, where few people live. in fact, the world"spopulation has access to only 12,500 cubic kilometers offreshwater-about the amount of water in lake superior. and peopleuse half of this amount already. "if water demand continues toclimb rapidly," says postel, "there will be severe shortages anddamage to the aquatic environment."
close to home
water woes may seem remote to people living in rich countries likethe united states. but americans could face serious watershortages, too especially in areas that rely on groundwater.groundwater accumulates in aquifers, layers of sand and gravel thatlie between soil and bedrock. (for every liter of surface water,more than 90 liters are hidden underground.)although the unitedstates has large aquifers, farmers, ranchers, and cities aretapping many of them for water faster than nature can replenish it.in northwest texas, for example, over pumping has shrunkgroundwater supplies by 25 percent, according to postel.
americans may face even more urgent problems from pollution.drinking water in the united states is generally safe and meetshigh standards. nevertheless, one in five americans every dayunknowingly drinks tap water contaminated with bacteria andchemical wastes, according to the environmental protection agency.in milwaukee, 400,000 people fell ill in 1993 after drinking tapwater tainted with cryptosporidium, a microbe that causes fever,diarrhea and vomiting.
the source
where do contaminants come from? in developing countries, peopledump raw sewage into the same streams and rivers from which theydraw water for drinking and cooking; about 250 million people ayear get sick from water borne diseases.
in developed countries, manufacturers use 100,000 chemicalcompounds to make a wide range of products. toxic chemicals pollutewater when released untreated into rivers and lakes. (certaincompounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, or pcbs, have beenbanned in the united states.)
but almost everyone contributes to water pollution. people oftenpour household cleaners, car antifreeze, and paint thinners downthe drain; all of these contain hazardous chemicals. scientistsstudying water in the san francisco bay reported in 1996 that 70percent of the pollutants could be traced to household waste.
farmers have been criticized for overusing herbicides andpesticides, chemicals that kill weeds and insects but that pollutewater as well. farmers also use nitrates, nitrogenrich fertilizerthat help plants grow but that can wreak havoc on the environment.nitrates are swept away by surface runoff to lakes and seas. toomany nitrates "over enrich" these bodies of water, encouraging thebuildup of algae, or microscopic plants that live on the surface ofthe water. algae deprive the water of oxygen that fish need tosurvive, at times choking off life in an entire body ofwater.
what"s the solution?
water expert gleick advocates conservation and local solutions towater-related problems; governments, for instance, would be betteroff building small-scale dams rather than huge and disruptiveprojects like the one that ruined the aral sea.
"more than 1 billion people worldwide don"t have access to basicclean drinking water," says gleick. "there has to be a strong pushon the part of everyone-governments and ordinary people-to makesure we have a resource so fundamental to life."
1.what caused the aral sea to shrink?
[a]the rivers flowing into it have been diverted.
[b]farmers used its water to irrigate their farmland.
[c]government planners overpumped its water.
[d]high temperature made its water badly evaporate.
2.the construction of massive dams and irrigation projects .
[a]does more good than harm
[b]solves more problems than what they created
[c]does more harm than good
[d]brings more water to people than expected
3.the chief causes of water shortage include .
[a]population growth and water waste
[b]water pollution and dry weather
[c]water waste and pollution
[d]population growth and water pollution
4.americans could suffer from greatly serious watershortages?
[a]living in rich areas
[b]living in big cities but poor condition
[c]depending on groundwater
[d]bearing high standards of safe drinking water in mind
5.what is the main pollutant in developed countries?
[a]untreated toxic chemicals from manufacturers.
[b]raw sewage into rivers and streams.
[c]herbicides and pesticides used by farmers.
[d]household cleaners poured down the drain.
6.how does algae make threats to life of a body of water?
[a]by covering the whole surface of the water.
[b]by competitively using oxygen life in water needs.
[c]by living more rapidly than other life in water .
[d]by releasing hazardous chemicals into water.
7.according to gleick, who should be responsible for solvingwater-related problems?
[a]government and housewives.
[b]farmers and manufacturers.
[c]ordinary people and manufacturers.
[d]government and every person.
8. according to peter h. gleick, by the year 2025, as many as ofthe world"s people will suffer from water shortages.
9.two thirds of the freshwater on earth is locked in .
10.in developed countries, before toxic chemicals are released intorivers and lakes, they should be treated in order to avoid .
part reading comprehension(reading in depth)(25 minutes)
section a
directions: in this section, there is a passage with ten blanks.you are required to select one word for each blank from a list ofchoices given in a word bank following the passage. read thepassage through carefully before making your choices. each choicein the bank is identified by a letter. please mark thecorresponding letter for each item on answer sheet 2 with a singleline through the centre. you may not use any of the words in thebank more than once.
questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
shopping habits in the united states have changed greatly in thelast quarter of the 20th century. early in the 1900s most americantowns and cities had a main street. main street was always the 47of a town. this street was lined on the both sides with many 48businesses. here, shoppers walked into stores to look at all sortsof merchandise: clothing, furniture, hardware, groceries. inaddition, some shops offered 49 . there shops included drugstores,restaurants, shoe repair stores, and barber or hairdressing shops.but in the 1950s, a change began to 50 place. too many automobileshad crowded into main street while too few parking places were 51to shoppers. because the streets were crowded, merchants began tolook with interest at the open spaces outside the city limits. openspace is what their car driving customers 52 . and open space iswhat they got when the first shopping centre was built. shoppingcenters, or rather malls, 53 as a collection of small new storesaway from crowded city centers. attracted by hundreds of freeparking space, customers were drawn away from 54 areas to outlyingmalls. and the growing 55 of shopping centers led in turn to thebuilding of bigger and better stocked stores. by the late 1970s,many shopping malls had almost developed into small citiesthemselves. in addition to providing the 56 of the stop shopping,malls were transformed into landscaped parks, with benches,fountains, and outdoor entertainment.
[a]designed[f]convenience[k]cosmetics
[b]take[g]services[l]started
[c]heart[h]fame[m]downtown
[d]needed[i]various[n]available
[e]though[j]popularity[o]cheapness
section b
directions: there are 2 passages in this section. each passage isfollowed by some questions or unfinished statements. for each ofthem there are four choices marked [a], [b], [c]and [d].you shoulddecide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter onanswer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
passage one
questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
culture is one of the most challenging elements of theinternational marketplace. this system of learned behavior patternscharacteristic of the members of a given society is constantlyshaped by a set of dynamic variables: language, religion, valuesand attitudes, manners and customs, aesthetics, technology,education, and social institutions. to cope with this system, aninternational manager needs both factual and interpretive knowledgeof culture. to some extent, the factual knowledge can be learned;its interpretation comes only through experience.
the most complicated problems in dealing with the culturalenvironment stem from the fact that one cannot learn culture-onehas to live it. two schools of thought exist in the business worldon how to deal with cultural diversity. one is that business isbusiness the world around, following the model of pepsi andmcdonald"s. in some cases, globalization is a fact of life;however, cultural differences are still far from converging.
the other school proposes that companies must tailor businessapproaches to individual cultures. setting up policies andprocedures in each country has been compared to an organtransplant; the critical question centers around acceptance orrejection. the major challenge to the international manager is tomake sure that rejection is not a result of cultural myopia or evenblindness.
fortune examined the international performance of a dozen largecompanies that earn 20 percent or more of their revenue overseas.the internationally successful companies all share an importantquality: patience. they have not rushed into situations but ratherbuilt their operations carefully by following the most basicbusiness principles. these principles are to know your adversary,know your audience, and know your customer.
57.according to the passage, which of the following is true?
[a]all international managers can learn culture.
[b]business diversity is not necessary.
[c]views differ on how to treat culture in business world.
[d]most people do not know foreign culture well.
58.according to the author, the model of pepsi.
[a]is in line with the theories that the business is business theworld around
[b]is different from the model of mcdonald"s
[c]shows the reverse of globalization
[d]has converged cultural differences
59.the two schools of thought.
[a]both propose that companies should tailor business approaches toindividual cultures
[b]both advocate that different policies be set up in differentcountries
[c]admit the existence of cultural diversity in businessworld
[d]both a and b
60.this article is supposed to be most useful for those.
[a]who are interested in researching the topic of culturaldiversity
[b]who have connections to more than one type of culture
[c]who want to travel abroad
[d]who want to run business on international scale
61.according to fortune, successful international